Terpenes

Guide to Cannabis Terpenes

Terpenes are the aromatic essential oils that give cannabis it’s flavor, aroma and make each strain unique. Choosing a marijuana strain based on its terpene content is the most reliable way of anticipating how it may affect you. However, even within a specific strain, the terpene profile can vary due to growing and extraction processes. At the end of the day, lab testing is the only way to definitively know a strain’s terpene profile. At LivWell all of the strains we harvest are tested by an independent lab for potency and terpene profile. All of the strains we carry are clearly marked with both the top three terpenes present and THC and/or CBD potency.

Use this chart to become familiar with the properties and effects of the different terpenes. LivWell makes no claims regarding the health and medical benefits of cannabis.

Terpene

Aroma

Also Found In

Common Effects

Potential Medical Benefits


Pinene
Pine
Pine needles, Rosemary, Basil, Parsley
Alertness, memory retention
Improve respiratory functions; asthma, antiseptic

Myrcene
Musky, Cloves, Tropical Fruit
Mangoes, Lemongrass, Thyme, Hops
Deeply relaxing
Antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, muscle relaxation, anti-inflammatory, pain relief

Limonene
Citrus
Fruit rinds, Juniper, Peppermint
Elevated mood, stress relief
Antidepressant, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, stimulates immune system, reduces acid reflux

Caryophyllene
Spicy, Peppery
Black pepper, Cloves, Cotton

Anti-inflammatory, gastrointestinal 

Linalool
Floral, Citrus
Lavender, Laurel
Relaxing, sedating
Anti-anxiety, combats stress, insomnia

Geraniol
Fruity, Citrus, Floral, Rosey
Lemons, Citronella
Uplifting, relaxing
Antioxidant, anti-fungal, appetite suppressant

Humulene
Hoppy, Woody, Earthy
Sage, Ginseng, Hops, Coriander

Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, appetite suppressant

Ocimene
Floral, Woody, Sweet
Mango, Basil, Bergamot, Orchid
Uplifting
Anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, antiviral 

Terpinolene
Pine, Floral, Herbal
Nutmeg, Tea Tree, Apple, Cumin
Sedating
Antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-fungal

Further Understanding Terpenes

What is Alpha-Pinene
Pinene is the main terpene in fir and pine trees which gives them their characteristic scent. It’s also found in high amounts in rosemary and Cannabis. Pinene is the most commonly found terpene in the plant world. High concentrations of Pinene can be found in many varieties of Cannabis Sativa. The two main isomers, alpha and beta-pinene, also constitute the main components of wood turpentine. Although pinene has two main isomers, alpha-pinene is the dominant one found in Cannabis. Pinene is also crucial to our bodies because it forms the biosynthetic base for CB2 ligands in the endocannabinoid system. It is also believed that the effects of THC may be lessened if mixed with pinene. The main effects of Pinene will make you feel more alert, help retain information, and can counteract some of the effects of THC.

Medical Value
Analgesic – Relieves pain.
Antibacterial – Slowsbacterial growth, and has broad spectrum antibiotic properties. Highly effective against MRSAwhen working in synergy with the cannabinoids CBD and CBN.
Anti-Inflammatory – Reduces inflammation systemically.
Anti-Proliferative – Inhibits cancer cell growth.
Antioxidant – Prevents oxidation damage to other molecules in the body.

*LivWell makes no claims regarding the health and medical benefits of cannabis.

What is Beta-Pinene
Pinene is the main terpene in fir and pine trees which gives them their characteristic scent. It’s also found in high amounts in rosemary and Cannabis. Pinene is the most commonly found terpene in the plant world. High concentrations of Pinene can be found in many varieties of Cannabis Sativa. The two main isomers, alpha and beta-pinene, also constitute the main components of wood turpentine. Although pinene has two main isomers, alpha-pinene is the dominant one found in Cannabis. Pinene is also crucial to our bodies because it forms the biosynthetic base for CB2 ligands in the endocannabinoid system. It is also believed that the effects of THC may be lessened if mixed with pinene. The main effects of Pinene will make you feel more alert, help retain information, and can counteract some of the effects of THC.

Medical Value
Analgesic – Relieves pain.
Antibacterial – Slows bacterial growth and has broad spectrum antibiotic properties. Highly effective against MRSAwhen working in synergy with the cannabinoids CBD and CBN.
Anti-Inflammatory – Reduces inflammation systemically.
Anti-Proliferative – Inhibits cancer cell growth.
Antioxidant – Prevents oxidation damage to other molecules in the body.

*LivWell makes no claims regarding the health and medical benefits of cannabis.

What is Caryophyllene
Beta-caryophyllene is a sesquiterpene found in many plants such as basil, cloves, cinnamon leaves, black pepper, lavender and cotton. Its aroma is described as peppery, woody and/or spicy. Caryophyllene has been found to elicit significant neuroprotection by its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities mediated by activation of the CB2 receptors in the brain. Caryophyllene has many other health benefits that include anti-cancerous and local anesthetic effects.

Medical Value
Analgesic – Relieves pain.
Anesthetic – Relieves the sensation of pain.
Antibacterial – Slows bacterial growth.
Antidepressant – Relieves symptoms of depression.
Anti-Inflammatory – Reducesinflammation systemically.
Anti-Proliferative – Inhibits cancer cell growth.
Antioxidant – Preventsoxidation damage to other molecules in the body.
Anxiolytic – Helps relieve anxiety.
Neuroprotective –Slows damage to the nervous system and brain.

*LivWell makes no claims regarding the health and medical benefits of cannabis.

What is Geraniol
Geraniol was first discovered in geranium, from which it got its name. This acyclic monoterpene-alcohol is also found in small quantities in lemon, pelargonium, roses, palmarosa and citronella, as well as several other essential oils. Geraniol produces an aroma of sweet, citrus, floral that is similar to roses. Geraniol has very uplifting effects with some added stress relief.

Medical Value
Antioxidant – Prevents oxidation damage to other molecules in the body.
Anorectic – Appetite suppressant.
Antifungal – Inhibits the growth of fungus.
Anti-Proliferative – Inhibits cancer cell growth.

*LivWell makes no claims regarding the health and medical benefits of cannabis.

What is Humulene
Humulene, also known as α-humulene or α-caryophyllene, is a naturally occurring monocyclic sesquiterpene. Humulene can be found in hops, Cannabis Sativa strains, coriander, sage and ginseng. Humulene is what gives beer its distinct ‘hoppy’ aroma. Humulene has been used for generations in Chinese medicine. Humulene has been found to produce anti-inflammatory effects in mammals, and has potential to be a tool in the management of inflammatory diseases. It produces similar effects to the anti-inflammatory steroid Dexamethasone. Humulene has been found to decrease the edema formation caused by histamine injections.

Medical Value
Analgesic – Relieves pain.
Anti-Inflammatory – Reduces inflammation systemically.
Antibacterial – Slows bacterial growth.
Anorectic – Appetite suppressant.

*LivWell makes no claims regarding the health and medical benefits of cannabis.

What is Limonene
Limonene is a monocyclic monoterpenoid and one of two major compounds formed from pinene. As the name would suggest, its aroma is akin to the strong citrusy smells of oranges, lemons and limes. This citrusy terpene is one of the major constituents in citrus fruit rinds, rosemary, juniper, peppermint and can be found in several pine needle oils. Limonene has been shown to be uplifting, have stress-relieving effects, and has been found to promote weight loss. Limonene has also been shown to have anti-cancer benefits from multiple mechanisms, including improved immune response, improved antioxidant defense system, improved detoxification, reduction in inflammation, better regulation of the cell cycle, and induction of death signals in cancer cells.

Medical Value
Antidepressant – Relieves symptoms of depression.
Antifungal – Inhibits the growth of fungus.
Anti-Inflammatory – Reduces inflammation systemically.
Anti-Proliferative – Inhibits cancer cell growth.
Anxiolytic – Helps relieve anxiety.
Gastro-Esophageal Reflux – Reduces acid reflux.
Immunostimulant – Stimulates the immune system.

*LivWell makes no claims regarding the health and medical benefits of cannabis.

What is Linalool
Linalool is described as having a lavender, floral or citrus aroma, and has been used for centuries as a sleep aid. Cannabis that has linalool has been shown to produce calming and relaxing effects. Linalool lessens the anxious emotions associated with THC, making it helpful in the treatment of both psychosis and anxiety. Studies also show that linalool boosts the immune system, significantly reduces lung inflammation and restores cognitive and emotional function. A study from International Immunopharmacology published in 2015 (Volume 29, Issue 2) has indicated that linalool may significantly reduce lung inflammation caused by cigarette smoke by blocking the carcinogenesis induced by benz[α]anthracene, a component of the tar generated by the combustion of tobacco.

Medical Value
Analgesic – Relieves pain.
Antidepressant – Relieves symptoms of depression.
Anti-Convulsant – Reduces seizures and convulsions.
Anti-Inflammatory – Reduces inflammation systemically.
Anti-Acne – Reduces acne.
Antipsychotic – Tranquilizing effects relieve symptoms of psychosis.
Sedative – Promotes sleep.
Anxiolytic – Relieves symptoms of anxiety.

*LivWell makes no claims regarding the health and medical benefits of cannabis.

What is Myrcene
Myrcene is the most commonly found terpene in Cannabis. This terpene’s aroma is described as musky, earthy, and herbal with notes of citrus and tropical fruit. The effects can include that “couch-lock” feeling that Indica strains typically produce. Myrcene allows cannabinoids to take effect more quickly. Myrcene is found in the oil of hops, citrus fruits, bay leaves, eucalyptus, wild thyme, lemon grass and many other plants. Myrcene has been shown to increase the maximum saturation level of the CB1 receptor, allowing for a greater maximum psychoactive effect.

Medical Value
Analgesic – Relieves pain.
Antibacterial – Slows bacterial growth.
Anti-Diabetic – Helps mitigate the effects of diabetes.
Anti-Inflammatory – Reduces inflammation systemically.
Anti-Insomnia – Aids with sleep.
Anti-Proliferative / Anti-Mutagenic – Inhibits cell mutation, including cancer cells.
Antipsychotic – Tranquilizing effects relieve symptoms of psychosis.
Antispasmodic – Suppresses muscle spasms.
*LivWell makes no claims regarding the health or medical benefits of cannabis.

*LivWell makes no claims regarding the health and medical benefits of cannabis.

What is Terpinolene
Terpinolene is the main terpene in allspice. Terpinolene is characterized by a camphoraceous, herbal, grapefruit, cedar, and eucalyptus flavor and aroma. Terpinolene can be found in a variety of other fragrant plants, including tea tree, nutmeg, apples, cumin, and lilacs, and is sometimes used in the production of soaps, perfumes, and lotions. Medicinally, Terpinolene is neither an anti-inflammatory nor analgesic, making it rather unique compared to other terpenes and cannabinoids. Although some evidence exists to show that Terpinolene has efficacy in fighting cancer, Terpinolene is best known for having both antimicrobial and antibacterial properties. In larger quantities Terpinolene acts as a sedative, which could be useful in the treatment of sleep disorders, especially in conjunction with other terpenes like linalool and cannabinol. Terpinolene-rich Cannabis strains are usually Sativa-dominant,Haze varieties. Jack Herer strains are known to have large amounts of Terpinolene present.

Medical Value
Antibacterial – Slows bacterial growth.
Antifungal – Inhibits the growth of fungus.
Anti-Insomnia – Aids with sleep.
Anti-Proliferative – Inhibits cancer cell growth.
Antioxidant – Prevents oxidation damage to other molecules in the body.
*LivWell makes no claims regarding the health or medical benefits of cannabis.

LivWell makes no claims regarding the health and medical benefits of cannabis.